LONDON — Twenty people at a packed nightclub here suffered chemical burns from an acid-like substance thrown at them on April 17, an attack that authorities say reflects a frightening trend.
Toxic substances such as drain cleaner are being used as weapons more frequently, apparently as a result of a crackdown on guns and knives in recent years.
Metropolitan Police figures from March show attacks involving corrosive fluids in London jumped 74% from 261 in 2015 to 454 in 2016. Across Britain, such attacks increased 30% between 2012 and 2015, according to the London Times.
The assault at the Mangle nightclub in east London left two people blind in one eye from what police called a "corrosive fluid." The former boyfriend of a British reality TV star has been detained, along with an another man, in connection with the incident. Witnesses said the attack followed a fight in the club.
On April 21, police in Manchester in northern England, said a pregnant woman and a man suffered "severe discomfort" when someone threw bleach in their eyes from a passing car.
"It’s a growing problem, there’s no question," said Jaf Shah, executive director of Acid Survivors Trust International, a London charity that supports victims, predominantly in South Asia, where acid attacks are more common.
Shah said acid attacks in other countries usually involve men targeting females. The reasons are often over spurned marriage proposals or sexual advances. In Britain, young men are mainly targeting other young men in violence that is often gang-related. British law is not specific about banning acid as a weapon, so gang members may use it to avoid prosecution, he said.
Even so, acid attackers are often convicted of assault or a more serious charge of grievous bodily harm, which carries a maximum life sentence. Since 2015, the government has required vendors to report suspicious transactions involving sulfuric acid to police because it can be used to manufacture explosives.
“(Corrosive substances) are extremely easy to get hold of (in Britain). You can buy them from hardware stores and don't have to register why you're purchasing it or what you want to use it for,” said Simon Harding, a professor of criminology at London's Middlesex University.
“If you throw (acid) in someone’s face it’s going to affect their eyes and eyesight so you have a high chance of getting away with it. It’s a very easy thing to do. You can ride up to someone on a bike and throw it at them."
By contrast, guns are very hard to get in Britain, unlike in the United States. As a result, their are only 50 to 60 gun homicides in England and Wales each year, a rate of about one for every 1 million people, according to the Geneva Declaration of Armed Violence and Development, a multinational organization. In the U.S., about 30 per 1 million people are killed in gun homicides. The Gun Violence Archive, a database of gun-related violence in the U.S., says 13,286 people were killed and 26,819 injured by firearms in the U.S. in 2015.
Victims of acid attacks say they must deal with life-long repercussions. Australians Prue Fraser, 20, and her sister, Isobella, 22, were among those sprayed at the Mangle club.
“I ended up in the middle of this fight and I was thrown over the barrier near the bar with all my stuff," Prue Fraser told the London Evening Standard. “Getting up I could feel my arm was burning. It was like boiling water had been poured over me but like I was cut as well. I have never experienced anything like it, it was excruciating. We saw six other girls who had it in their eyes, faces and chest areas they were screaming and crying."
Isobella Fraser said she sustained third-degree burns on her arms and back.
Daniel Rotariu, 31, of Leicester in central England, was blinded in both eyes and suffered burns to 32% of his body when his lover, Katie Leong, threw sulfuric acid on him as he slept following an argument last July. Leong, 52, was convicted of attempted murder in March and sentenced to life in prison.
"I have nightmares. ... I see it every day, every hour, like it was yesterday," Rotariu said in his victim-impact statement in court. "More than half of my life I’m gonna have to live it like this. ... Sometimes I wish I was dead and I didn’t survive.”
The issue of cellphones causing cancer has been under discussion over the past few years. There are multiple reasons why cell phone users are concerned about the chances of it causing cancer and various other kinds of diseases:
Cell Phones and Cancer: What are the Risks?
– The radiofrequency energy emitted by the cell phones is released from the antennas. Ear tissues, being the closest to the antenna can absorb this energy.
– The percentage of cell phone users has rapidly increased. Since December 2014, more than 327.5 million new cell phone subscribers have been registered- alone in the United States.
– It is thrice the amount it was in 2000. On a global scale, the number of cell phone users is increasing to 5 billion.
– The period of time spent using a smart phone device has increased. More and more improvements in the technology have encouraged the production of low power output models compared to the previous ones.
How radio frequency energy affects the body?
Radiofrequency energy is an electromagnetic radiation type. This radiation is categorized by two forms: nonionizing rays and ionizing rays. Electromagnetic radiation is determined by its frequency and wavelength.
Do Cellphones Cause Cancer?
The energy radiated through electromagnetic rays is established by its ionizing radiations and high energy. Nonionizing radiation basically has a low frequency, whereas ionizing radiation has a high frequency.
The human body has the ability to absorb this energy from cell phone to radio devices that absorb energy emitted from electromagnetic radiation. The amount of energy a human body absorbs every day is estimated using an SAR rate that expresses watts per weight in Kilogram.
Constant exposure to these rays is considered to be the cause of cancer in human body. Many studies examine the negative health effects of non-ionizing radiation that is released from a microwave oven, radar, cell phones and laptops. Although studies provide a range of opinion about the effects of non-ionizing radiations, the biological effect of this energy is heating. The ability of this energy to heat is likely to be the cause of cancer.
Effect on glucose metabolism:
One of the core reasons established to be the cause of cancer in human beings is its effects on glucose metabolism. A few studies have also determined its effect on brain glucose. The study showed an increased amount of glucose metabolism in the brain region that is the closest to the antenna as compared to the opposite side tissues of the brain.
Even Apple gives the warning to user, is you look and read properly user manual.
How does it cause cancer? Do Cellphones Cause Brain Cancer?
Many studies have established a link between the cell phone radiation and a serious illness. Cancer associated with the use of the cellphone is linked with two types of tumors- acoustic neuromas and gliomas.
Gliomas: It is a type of tumor that initiates in the spine or brain and is usually malignant. Those who are diagnosed with this disease survive only 1 to 3 years with this kind of tumor.
Acoustic neuromas: It is a low-grade cancer which develops near the skull area.
A study initiated by Interphone research on the use of cell phones by humans included an experiment on the risk of developing tumor by using cell phones. It found that “constant use of cell phones by children and adults alike can have a 40% reasons for developing gliomas”. It established that those who use cell phones for more than 30 minutes per day are the risk of developing this form of cancer over the period of ten years.
What you can do about it:
- Mobiles have become a necessity. But a friendly distance can be helpful. Exposure to radiation is the worst is the cell phone is closest to the body. Ensure that your cell phone remains at four times distance from your head. Keep it more than 50 times more distance than you usually used to keep it. The use of headset minimizes the direct contact with the cell phone. Consider using the speakerphone when you can
- Studies on headsets have provided that keeping your cell phone in the purse or backpack can reduce the risk of exposing yourself to the cancerous rays of cell phones.
- Modern smartphones not always emit the same energy when using. The better reception the phone, the lesser energy radiated from it. Avoid using phones in areas where there is poor exposure.
- Keep your cell phone on airplane mode when you are not using it
- Never sleep with cell phones on your side. The brain absorbs the highest energy from the surrounding when the body is stationary. Keep your cell phone turned off or at a good distance when you are sleeping.
- If you wake up with a headache when keeping a cellphone around- believe that it is affecting your brain and it should be kept at a good distance
- Limit your use of internet on the cellphone.
For a woman whose husband is in prison, it is difficult to stay all alone by herself. They miss their husband’s presence and they miss being in the physical act of love with them. Some of the wives, who were missing their husbands, went to jail to be with them. They share their experience and this is what they said:
It Was Best Time With Him –Kate 27
Kate’s husband was given permission for conjugal visit and she went to meet him. She says this was their best even before when he was not in jail.
She Had Home To Herself- Maggie 25
Maggie says after she was with him, the good part was she left him there and had home to herself alone.
No More Cheating – Darlene – 40c
Darlene says her husband used to cheat on her while he was free. However she does not have to worry about it anymore.
Bizarre – Sadie -38
Sadie says her husband was more bizarre when she had it in jail with him then when he not in jail.
HE IS A BADIE – ANNA BELLE – 35
LOVE IS ALIVE – DEBBIE -45
For Debbie her inmate husband and her enjoy being close in jail as it keeps their love alive.
His Queen – Shania -27
Shania says she is the queen for husband and he get crazy for her when she is with him physically.
SHE DOESN’T NEED TO CHEAT – ZOE -35
Zoe says she does not need to cheat on her husband while he is in prison as these visits let her get with him.
His Medicine – Kris 49
Kris feels that she saves him and she is like a medicine for him.
Loves Waiting For Her – Gretchen -39
For Gretchen, her husband cannot wait to see her and gets to love her when she is with him.